TABLES Statement 
The TABLES statement requests oneway to nway frequency and crosstabulation tables and statistics for those tables.
If you omit the TABLES statement, PROC FREQ generates oneway frequency tables for all data set variables that are not listed in the other statements.
The following argument is required in the TABLES statement.
specify the frequency and crosstabulation tables to produce. A request is composed of one variable name or several variable names separated by asterisks. To request a oneway frequency table, use a single variable. To request a twoway crosstabulation table, use an asterisk between two variables. To request a multiway table (an nway table, where n>2), separate the desired variables with asterisks. The unique values of these variables form the rows, columns, and strata of the table. You can include up to 50 variables in a single multiway table request.
For twoway to multiway tables, the values of the last variable form the crosstabulation table columns, while the values of the nexttolast variable form the rows. Each level (or combination of levels) of the other variables forms one stratum. PROC FREQ produces a separate crosstabulation table for each stratum. For example, a specification of A*B*C*D in a TABLES statement produces k tables, where k is the number of different combinations of values for A and B. Each table lists the values for C down the side and the values for D across the top.
You can use multiple TABLES statements in the PROC FREQ step. PROC FREQ builds all the table requests in one pass of the data, so that there is essentially no loss of efficiency. You can also specify any number of table requests in a single TABLES statement. To specify multiple table requests quickly, use a grouping syntax by placing parentheses around several variables and joining other variables or variable combinations. For example, the statements shown in Table 36.8 illustrate grouping syntax.
TABLES Request 
Equivalent to 

A*(B C) 
A*B A*C 
(A B)*(C D) 
A*C B*C A*D B*D 
(A B C)*D 
A*D B*D C*D 
A – – C 
A B C 
(A – – C)*D 
A*D B*D C*D 
The TABLES statement variables are one or more variables from the DATA= input data set. These variables can be either character or numeric, but the procedure treats them as categorical variables. PROC FREQ uses the formatted values of the TABLES variable to determine the categorical variable levels. So if you assign a format to a variable with a FORMAT statement, PROC FREQ formats the values before dividing observations into the levels of a frequency or crosstabulation table. See the discussion of the FORMAT procedure in the Base SAS Procedures Guide and the discussions of the FORMAT statement and SAS formats in SAS Language Reference: Dictionary.
If you use PROC FORMAT to create a userwritten format that combines missing and nonmissing values into one category, PROC FREQ treats the entire category of formatted values as missing. See the discussion in the section Grouping with Formats for more information.
By default, the frequency or crosstabulation table lists the values of both character and numeric variables in ascending order based on internal (unformatted) variable values. You can change the order of the values in the table by specifying the ORDER= option in the PROC FREQ statement. To list the values in ascending order by formatted value, use ORDER=FORMATTED.
If you request a oneway frequency table for a variable without specifying options, PROC FREQ produces frequencies, cumulative frequencies, percentages of the total frequency, and cumulative percentages for each value of the variable. If you request a twoway or an nway crosstabulation table without specifying options, PROC FREQ produces crosstabulation tables that include cell frequencies, cell percentages of the total frequency, cell percentages of row frequencies, and cell percentages of column frequencies. The procedure excludes observations with missing values from the table but displays the total frequency of missing observations below each table.
Table 36.9 lists the options available in the TABLES statement. Descriptions of the options follow in alphabetical order.
Option 
Description 

Control Statistical Analysis 

Requests tests and measures of classification agreement 

Requests tests and measures of association produced by CHISQ, 

MEASURES, and CMH 

Sets the confidence level for confidence limits 

Requests Tarone’s adjustment for the BreslowDay test 

Requests binomial proportion, confidence limits, and tests 

for oneway tables 

Requests BINOMIAL statistics with a continuity correction 

Requests chisquare tests and measures based on chisquare 

Requests confidence limits for the MEASURES statistics 

Requests all CochranMantelHaenszel statistics 

Requests CMH correlation statistic, adjusted odds ratios, 

and adjusted relative risks 

Requests CMH correlation and row mean scores (ANOVA) 

statistics, adjusted odds ratios, and adjusted relative risks 

Specifies convergence criterion for polychoric correlation 

Requests Fisher’s exact test for tables larger than 

Requests GailSimon test for qualitative interactions 

Requests JonckheereTerpstra test 

Specifies maximum number of iterations for polychoric correlation 

Requests measures of association 

Treats missing values as nonmissing 

Requests polychoric correlation 

Requests relative risk measures for tables 

Requests risks and risk differences for tables 

Specifies the type of row and column scores 

Specifies expected frequencies for oneway chisquare test 

Specifies expected proportions for oneway chisquare test 

Requests CochranArmitage test for trend 

Control Additional Table Information 

Displays cell contributions to the Pearson chisquare statistic 

Displays cumulative column percentages 

Displays deviations of cell frequencies from expected values 

Displays expected cell frequencies 

Displays missing value frequencies 

Includes all possible combinations of variable levels 

in LIST and OUT= 

Displays percentages of total frequency for nway tables () 

Specifies the contents label for crosstabulation tables 

Displays crosstabulation tables in ODS column format 

Formats the frequencies in crosstabulation tables 

Displays twoway to nway tables in list format 

Suppresses display of column percentages 

Suppresses display of cumulative frequencies and percentages 

Suppresses display of frequencies 

Suppresses display of percentages 

Suppresses display of crosstabulation tables but displays statistics 

Suppresses display of row percentages 

Suppresses zero frequency levels in CROSSLIST, LIST and OUT= 

Suppresses log warning message for the chisquare test 

Displays kappa coefficient weights 

Displays row and column scores 

Produce Statistical Graphics 

Requests plots from ODS Graphics 

Create an Output Data Set 

Names an output data set to contain frequency counts 

Includes cumulative frequencies and percentages 

in the output data set for oneway tables 

Includes expected frequencies in the output data set 

Includes row, column, and twoway table percentages 

in the output data set 
You can specify the following options in a TABLES statement.
requests tests and measures of classification agreement for square tables. The AGREE option provides McNemar’s test for tables and Bowker’s test of symmetry for square tables with more than two response categories. The AGREE option also produces the simple kappa coefficient, the weighted kappa coefficient, their asymptotic standard errors, and their confidence limits. When there are multiple strata, the AGREE option provides overall simple and weighted kappas as well as tests for equal kappas among strata. When there are multiple strata and two response categories, PROC FREQ computes Cochran’s test. See the section Tests and Measures of Agreement for details about these statistics.
If you specify the WT=FC option in parentheses following the AGREE option, PROC FREQ uses FleissCohen weights to compute the weighted kappa coefficient. By default, PROC FREQ uses CicchettiAllison weights. See the section Weighted Kappa Coefficient for details. You can specify the PRINTKWT option to display the kappa coefficient weights.
AGREE statistics are computed only for square tables, where the number of rows equals the number of columns. If your table is not square due to observations with zero weights, you can specify the ZEROS option in the WEIGHT statement to include these observations. For more details, see the section Tables with Zero Rows and Columns.
You can use the TEST statement to request asymptotic tests for the simple and weighted kappa coefficients. You can request exact pvalues for the simple and weighted kappa coefficient tests, as well as for McNemar’s test, by specifying the corresponding options in the EXACT statement. See the section Exact Statistics for more information.
requests all of the tests and measures that are computed by the CHISQ, MEASURES, and CMH options. The number of CMH statistics computed can be controlled by the CMH1 and CMH2 options.
specifies the level of confidence limits. The value of must be between 0 and 1, and the default is 0.05. A confidence level of produces % confidence limits. The default of ALPHA=0.05 produces 95% confidence limits.
ALPHA= applies to confidence limits requested by TABLES statement options. There is a separate ALPHA= option in the EXACT statement that sets the level of confidence limits for Monte Carlo estimates of exact pvalues, which are requested in the EXACT statement.
requests Tarone’s adjustment in the BreslowDay test for homogeneity of odds ratios. (You must specify the CMH option to compute the BreslowDay test.) See the section BreslowDay Test for Homogeneity of the Odds Ratios for more information.
requests the binomial proportion for oneway tables. When you specify the BINOMIAL option, by default PROC FREQ also provides the asymptotic standard error, asymptotic (Wald) and exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits, and the asymptotic equality test for the binomial proportion.
You can specify binomialoptions inside parentheses following the BINOMIAL option. The LEVEL= binomialoption identifies the variable level for which to compute the proportion. If you do not specify LEVEL=, PROC FREQ computes the proportion for the first level that appears in the output. The P= binomialoption specifies the null proportion for the binomial tests. If you do not specify P=, PROC FREQ uses P=0.5 by default.
You can also specify binomialoptions to request additional tests and confidence limits for the binomial proportion. The EQUIV, NONINF, and SUP binomialoptions request tests of equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority, respectively. Table 36.10 summarizes the binomialoptions.
Available confidence limits for the binomial proportion include AgrestiCoull, exact (ClopperPearson), Jeffreys, Wald, and Wilson (score) confidence limits. You can specify more than one type of binomial confidence limits in the same analysis. If you do not specify any confidence limit requests with binomialoptions, PROC FREQ computes Wald asymptotic confidence limits and exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits by default. The ALPHA= option determines the confidence level, and the default of ALPHA=0.05 produces 95% confidence limits for the binomial proportion.
As part of the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence analyses, PROC FREQ provides testbased confidence limits that have a confidence coefficient of % (Schuirmann 1999). The ALPHA= option determines the confidence level, and the default of ALPHA=0.05 produces 90% confidence limits. See the sections Noninferiority Test and Equivalence Test for details.
To request exact tests for the binomial proportion, specify the BINOMIAL option in the EXACT statement. PROC FREQ then computes exact pvalues for all binomial tests that you request with binomialoptions, which can include tests of noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence, in addition to the test of equality.
See the section Binomial Proportion for details.
Option 
Description 

Specifies the variable level 

Specifies the null proportion 

Requests continuity correction 

Request Confidence Limits 

Requests AgrestiCoull confidence limits 

Requests all confidence limits 

Requests ClopperPearson confidence limits 

Requests Jeffreys confidence limits 

Requests Wald confidence limits 

Requests Wilson (score) confidence limits 

Request Tests 

Requests an equivalence test 

Requests a noninferiority test 

Requests a superiority test 

Specifies the test margin 

Specifies the test variance 
You can specify the following binomialoptions inside parentheses following the BINOMIAL option:
requests AgrestiCoull confidence limits for the binomial proportion. See the section AgrestiCoull Confidence Limits for details.
requests all available types of confidence limits for the binomial proportion. These include the following: AgrestiCoull, exact (ClopperPearson), Jeffreys, Wald, and Wilson (score) confidence limits.
includes a continuity correction in the Wald confidence limits and tests. The BINOMIAL(CORRECT) option is equivalent to the BINOMIALC option.
requests a test of equivalence for the binomial proportion. See the section Equivalence Test for details. You can specify the equivalence test margins, the null proportion, and the variance type with the MARGIN=, P=, and VAR= binomialoptions, respectively.
requests exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits for the binomial proportion. See the section Exact (ClopperPearson) Confidence Limits for details. If you do not request any binomial confidence limits by specifying binomialoptions, PROC FREQ produces Wald and exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits by default. To request exact tests for the binomial proportion, specify the BINOMIAL option in the EXACT statement.
requests Jeffreys confidence limits for the binomial proportion. See the section Jeffreys Confidence Limits for details.
specifies the variable level for the binomial proportion. By default, PROC FREQ computes the proportion of observations for the first variable level that appears in the output. To request a different level, use LEVEL=levelnumber or LEVEL='levelvalue', where levelnumber is the variable level’s number or order in the output, and levelvalue is the formatted value of the variable level. The value of levelnumber must be a positive integer. You must enclose levelvalue in single quotes.
specifies the margin for the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence tests, which you request with the NONINF, SUP, and EQUIV binomialoptions, respectively. If you do not specify MARGIN=, PROC FREQ uses a margin of 0.2 by default.
For noninferiority and superiority tests, specify a single value for the MARGIN= option. The MARGIN= value must be a positive number. You can specify value as a number between 0 and 1. Or you can specify value in percentage form as a number between 1 and 100, and PROC FREQ converts that number to a proportion. The procedure treats the value 1 as 1%.
For noninferiority and superiority tests, the test limits must be between 0 and 1. The limits are determined by the null proportion value (which you can specify with the P= binomialoption) and by the margin value. The noninferiority limit equals the null proportion minus the margin. By default, the null proportion equals 0.5 and the margin equals 0.2, which gives a noninferiority limit of 0.3. The superiority limit equals the null proportion plus the margin, which is 0.7 by default.
For an equivalence test, you can specify a single MARGIN= value, or you can specify both lower and upper values. If you specify a single MARGIN= value, it must be a positive number, as described previously. If you specify a single MARGIN= value for an equivalence test, PROC FREQ uses –value as the lower margin and value as the upper margin for the test. If you specify both lower and upper values for an equivalence test, you can specify them in proportion form as numbers between –1 or 1. Or you can specify them in percentage form as numbers between –100 and 100, and PROC FREQ converts the numbers to proportions. The value of lower must be less than the value of upper.
The equivalence limits must be between 0 and 1. The equivalence limits are determined by the null proportion value (which you can specify with the P= binomialoption) and by the margin values. The lower equivalence limit equals the null proportion plus the lower margin. By default, the null proportion equals 0.5 and the lower margin equals –0.2, which gives a lower equivalence limit of 0.3. The upper equivalence limit equals the null proportion plus the upper margin, which is 0.7 by default.
See the sections Noninferiority Test and Equivalence Test for details.
requests a test of noninferiority for the binomial proportion. See the section Noninferiority Test for details. You can specify the noninferiority test margin, the null proportion, and the variance type with the MARGIN=, P=, and VAR= binomialoptions, respectively.
specifies the null hypothesis proportion for the binomial tests. If you omit the P= option, PROC FREQ uses 0.5 as the null proportion. The null proportion value must be a positive number. You can specify value as a number between 0 and 1. Or you can specify value in percentage form as a number between 1 and 100, and PROC FREQ converts that number to a proportion. The procedure treats the value 1 as 1%.
requests a test of superiority for the binomial proportion. See the section Superiority Test for details. You can specify the superiority test margin, the null proportion, and the variance type with the MARGIN=, P=, and VAR= binomialoptions, respectively.
specifies the type of variance estimate to use in the Wald tests of noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence. The default is VAR=SAMPLE, which estimates the variance from the sample proportion. VAR=NULL uses a testbased variance that is computed from the null hypothesis proportion (which is specified by the P= binomialoption). See the sections Noninferiority Test and Equivalence Test for details.
requests Wald confidence limits for the binomial proportion. See the section Wald Confidence Limits for details. If you specify the CORRECT binomialoption, the Wald confidence limits include a continuity correction. If you do not request any binomial confidence limits by specifying binomialoptions, PROC FREQ produces Wald and exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits by default.
requests Wilson confidence limits for the binomial proportion. These are also known as score confidence limits. See the section Wilson (Score) Confidence Limits for details.
requests the BINOMIAL statistics for oneway tables and includes a continuity correction in the Wald confidence limits and tests. Specifying BINOMIALC is equivalent to specifying the BINOMIAL(CORRECT) option.
The BINOMIAL statistics include the binomial proportion, its asymptotic standard error, Wald and exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits, and the asymptotic equality test for the binomial proportion by default. You can request exact binomial tests by specifying the BINOMIAL option in the EXACT statement.
You can specify binomialoptions inside parentheses following BINOMIALC to request additional tests and confidence limits for the binomial proportion. The binomialoptions are the same as those available with the BINOMIAL option (Table 36.10). See the description of the BINOMIAL option and the section Binomial Proportion for details.
displays each crosstabulation table cell’s contribution to the total Pearson chisquare statistic. The cell contribution is computed as
where frequency is the table cell frequency or count and expected is the expected cell frequency, which is computed under the null hypothesis that the row and column variables are independent. See the section Pearson ChiSquare Test for TwoWay Tables for details.
The CELLCHI2 option has no effect for oneway tables or for tables that are displayed with the LIST option.
requests chisquare tests of homogeneity or independence and measures of association based on the chisquare statistic. The tests include the Pearson chisquare, likelihoodratio chisquare, and MantelHaenszel chisquare. The measures include the phi coefficient, the contingency coefficient, and Cramer’s . For tables, the CHISQ option also provides Fisher’s exact test and the continuityadjusted chisquare. See the section ChiSquare Tests and Statistics for details.
For oneway tables, the CHISQ option provides a chisquare goodnessoffit test for equal proportions. If you specify the null hypothesis proportions with the TESTP= option, PROC FREQ computes a chisquare goodnessoffit test for the specified proportions. If you specify null hypothesis frequencies with the TESTF= option, PROC FREQ computes a chisquare goodnessoffit test for the specified frequencies. See the section ChiSquare Test for OneWay Tables for more information.
To request Fisher’s exact test for tables larger than , use the FISHER option in the EXACT statement. Exact tests are also available for other CHISQ statistics, including the Pearson, likelihoodratio, and MantelHaenszel chisquare, and the chisquare goodnessoffit test for oneway tables. You can use the EXACT statement to request these tests. See the section Exact Statistics for details.
You can specify the following option in parentheses following the CHISQ option:
controls the warning message about the validity of the asymptotic Pearson chisquare test. By default, PROC FREQ displays a warning when more than 20% of the table cells have expected frequencies that are less than 5. If you specify the NOPRINT option in the PROC FREQ statement, this warning is included in the log; otherwise, the warning is displayed as a footnote in the chisquare table. You can use the WARN= option to suppress the warning and to include a warning indicator in the output data set.
The WARN= option can take one or more of the following values. If you specify more than one value, enclose the values in parentheses following WARN=. For example, warn = (output noprint).
Value of WARN= 
Description 

OUTPUT 
Adds a warning indicator variable to the output data set 
NOLOG 
Suppresses the chisquare warning message in the log 
NOPRINT 
Suppresses the chisquare warning message in the display 
NONE 
Suppresses the chisquare warning message entirely 
If you specify the WARN=OUTPUT option, the chisquare ODS output data set contains a variable named Warning that equals 1 for the Pearson chisquare when more than 20% of the table cells have expected frequencies that are less than 5 and equals 0 otherwise. If you specify WARN=OUTPUT and also specify the CHISQ option in the OUTPUT statement, then the statistics output data set contains a variable named WARN_PCHI that indicates the warning.
The WARN=NOLOG option has the same effect as the NOWARN option in the TABLES statement.
requests confidence limits for the MEASURES statistics. If you omit the MEASURES option, the CL option invokes MEASURES. You can set the level of the confidence limits by using the ALPHA= option. The default of ALPHA=0.5 produces 95% confidence limits. See the sections Measures of Association and Confidence Limits for more information.
requests CochranMantelHaenszel statistics, which test for association between the row and column variables after adjusting for the remaining variables in a multiway table. The CochranMantelHaenszel statistics include the nonzero correlation statistic, the row mean scores (ANOVA) statistic, and the general association statistic. In addition, for tables, the CMH option provides the adjusted MantelHaenszel and logit estimates of the odds ratio and relative risks, together with their confidence limits. For stratified tables, the CMH option provides the BreslowDay test for homogeneity of odds ratios. (To request Tarone’s adjustment for the BreslowDay test, specify the BDT cmhoption.) See the section CochranMantelHaenszel Statistics for details.
You can use the CMH1 or CMH2 option to control the number of CMH statistics that PROC FREQ computes.
For stratified tables, you can request Zelen’s exact test for equal odds ratios by specifying the EQOR option in the EXACT statement. See the section Zelen’s Exact Test for Equal Odds Ratios for details. You can request exact confidence limits for the common odds ratio by specifying the COMOR option in the EXACT statement. This option also provides a common odds ratio test. See the section Exact Confidence Limits for the Common Odds Ratio for details.
You can specify the following cmhoptions in parentheses following the CMH option. These cmhoptions, which apply to stratified tables, are also available with the CMH1 or CMH2 option.
requests Tarone’s adjustment in the BreslowDay test for homogeneity of odds ratios. See the section BreslowDay Test for Homogeneity of the Odds Ratios for details. The BDT cmhoption has the same effect as the BDT option in the TABLES statement.
requests the GailSimon test for qualitative interaction, which applies to stratified tables. See the section GailSimon Test for Qualitative Interactions for details.
The COLUMN= option specifies the column of the risk differences to use in computing the GailSimon test. By default, PROC FREQ uses column 1 risk differences. If you specify COLUMN=2, PROC FREQ uses column 2 risk differences.
The GAILSIMON cmhoption has the same effect as the GAILSIMON option in the TABLES statement.
requests the MantelFleiss criterion for the MantelHaenszel statistic for stratified tables. See the section MantelFleiss Criterion for details.
requests the CochranMantelHaenszel correlation statistic. This option does not provide the CMH row mean scores (ANOVA) statistic or the general association statistic, which are provided by the CMH option. For tables larger than , the CMH1 option requires less memory than the CMH option, which can require an enormous amount of memory for large tables.
For tables, the CMH1 option also provides the adjusted MantelHaenszel and logit estimates of the odds ratio and relative risks, together with their confidence limits. For stratified tables, the CMH1 option provides the BreslowDay test for homogeneity of odds ratios.
The cmhoptions available with the CMH1 option are the same as those available with the CMH option. See the description of the CMH option for details.
requests the CochranMantelHaenszel correlation statistic and the row mean scores (ANOVA) statistic. This option does not provide the CMH general association statistic, which is provided by the CMH option. For tables larger than , the CMH2 option requires less memory than the CMH option, which can require an enormous amount of memory for large tables.
For tables, the CMH1 option also provides the adjusted MantelHaenszel and logit estimates of the odds ratio and relative risks, together with their confidence limits. For stratified tables, the CMH1 option provides the BreslowDay test for homogeneity of odds ratios.
The cmhoptions available with the CMH2 option are the same as those available with the CMH option. See the description of the CMH option for details.
specifies the label to use for crosstabulation tables in the contents file, the Results window, and the trace record. For information about output presentation, see the SAS Output Delivery System: User's Guide.
If you omit the CONTENTS= option, the contents label for crosstabulation tables is "CrossTabular Freq Table" by default.
Note that contents labels for all crosstabulation tables that are produced by a single TABLES statement use the same text. To specify different contents labels for different crosstabulation tables, request the tables in separate TABLES statements and use the CONTENTS= option in each TABLES statement.
To remove the crosstabulation table entry from the contents file, you can specify a null label with CONTENTS=''.
The CONTENTS= option affects only contents labels for crosstabulation tables. It does not affect contents labels for other PROC FREQ tables.
To specify the contents label for any PROC FREQ table, you can use PROC TEMPLATE to create a customized table definition. The CONTENTS_LABEL attribute in the DEFINE TABLE statement of PROC TEMPLATE specifies the contents label for the table. See the chapter "The TEMPLATE Procedure" in the SAS Output Delivery System: User's Guide for more information.
specifies the convergence criterion for computing the polychoric correlation, which you request with the PLCORR option. The CONVERGE= value must be a positive number. By default CONVERGE=0.0001. Iterative computation of the polychoric correlation stops when the convergence measure falls below the value of CONVERGE= or when the number of iterations exceeds the value specified in the MAXITER= option, whichever happens first. See the section Polychoric Correlation for details.
displays crosstabulation tables in ODS column format instead of the default crosstabulation cell format. In a CROSSLIST table display, the rows correspond to the crosstabulation table cells, and the columns correspond to descriptive statistics such as Frequency and Percent. The CROSSLIST table displays the same information as the default crosstabulation table, but uses an ODS column format instead of the table cell format. See the section Multiway Tables for details about the contents of the CROSSLIST table.
You can control the contents of a CROSSLIST table with the same options available for the default crosstabulation table. These include the NOFREQ, NOPERCENT, NOROW, and NOCOL options. You can request additional information in a CROSSLIST table with the CELLCHI2, DEVIATION, EXPECTED, MISSPRINT, and TOTPCT options.
The FORMAT= option and the CUMCOL option have no effect for CROSSLIST tables. You cannot specify both the LIST option and the CROSSLIST option in the same TABLES statement.
You can use the NOSPARSE option to suppress display of variable levels with zero frequency in CROSSLIST tables. By default for CROSSLIST tables, PROC FREQ displays all levels of the column variable within each level of the row variable, including any column variable levels with zero frequency for that row. And for multiway tables displayed with the CROSSLIST option, the procedure displays all levels of the row variable for each stratum of the table by default, including any row variable levels with zero frequency for the stratum.
displays the cumulative column percentages in the cells of the crosstabulation table. The CUMCOL option does not apply to crosstabulation tables produced with the LIST or CROSSLIST option.
displays the deviation of the frequency from the expected frequency for each cell of the crosstabulation table. See the section Pearson ChiSquare Test for TwoWay Tables for details. The DEVIATION option does not apply to crosstabulation tables produced with the LIST option.
displays the expected cell frequencies under the hypothesis of independence (or homogeneity) for crosstabulation tables. See the section Pearson ChiSquare Test for TwoWay Tables for details. The EXPECTED option does not apply to tables produced with the LIST option.
requests Fisher’s exact test for tables that are larger than . (For tables, the CHISQ option provides Fisher’s exact test.) This test is also known as the FreemanHalton test. See the sections Fisher’s Exact Test and Exact Statistics for more information.
If you omit the CHISQ option in the TABLES statement, the FISHER option invokes CHISQ. You can also request Fisher’s exact test by specifying the FISHER option in the EXACT statement.
Note: PROC FREQ computes exact tests with fast and efficient algorithms that are superior to direct enumeration. Exact tests are appropriate when a data set is small, sparse, skewed, or heavily tied. For some large problems, computation of exact tests might require a considerable amount of time and memory. Consider using asymptotic tests for such problems. Alternatively, when asymptotic methods might not be sufficient for such large problems, consider using Monte Carlo estimation of exact pvalues. See the section Computational Resources for more information.
specifies a format for the following crosstabulation table cell values: frequency, expected frequency, and deviation. PROC FREQ also uses the specified format to display the row and column total frequencies and the overall total frequency in crosstabulation tables.
You can specify any standard SAS numeric format or a numeric format defined with the FORMAT procedure. The format length must not exceed 24. If you omit the FORMAT= option, by default PROC FREQ uses the BEST6. format to display frequencies less than 1E6, and the BEST7. format otherwise.
The FORMAT= option applies only to crosstabulation tables displayed in the default format. It does not apply to crosstabulation tables produced with the LIST or CROSSLIST option.
To change display formats in any FREQ table, you can use PROC TEMPLATE. See the chapter "The TEMPLATE Procedure" in the SAS Output Delivery System: User's Guide for more information.
requests the GailSimon test for qualitative interaction, which applies to stratified tables. See the section GailSimon Test for Qualitative Interactions for details.
The COLUMN= option specifies the column of the risk differences to use in computing the GailSimon test. By default, PROC FREQ uses column 1 risk differences. If you specify COLUMN=2, PROC FREQ uses column 2 risk differences.
requests the JonckheereTerpstra test. See the section JonckheereTerpstra Test for details.
displays twoway to way crosstabulation tables in a list format instead of the default crosstabulation cell format. The LIST option displays the entire multiway table in one table, instead of displaying a separate twoway table for each stratum. See the section Multiway Tables for details.
The LIST option is not available when you also specify statistical options. You must use the standard crosstabulation table display or the CROSSLIST display when you request statistical tests or measures.
specifies the maximum number of iterations for computing the polychoric correlation, which you request with the PLCORR option. The value of the MAXITER= option must be a positive integer. By default MAXITER=20. Iterative computation of the polychoric correlation stops when the number of iterations exceeds the MAXITER= value or when the convergence measures falls below the value of the CONVERGE= option, whichever happens first. See the section Polychoric Correlation for details.
requests several measures of association and their asymptotic standard errors. The MEASURES option provides the following statistics: gamma, Kendall’s tau, Stuart’s tau, Somers’ , Somers’ , the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, lambda (symmetric and asymmetric), and uncertainty coefficients (symmetric and asymmetric). To request confidence limits for these measures of association, you can specify the CL option.
For tables, the MEASURES option also provides the odds ratio, column 1 relative risk, column 2 relative risk, and the corresponding confidence limits. Alternatively, you can obtain the odds ratio and relative risks, without the other measures of association, by specifying the RELRISK option.
See the section Measures of Association for details.
You can use the TEST statement to request asymptotic tests for the following measures of association: gamma, Kendall’s tau, Stuart’s tau, Somers’ , Somers’ , and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients. You can use the EXACT statement to request exact confidence limits for the odds ratio, exact unconditional confidence limits for the relative risks, and exact tests for the following measures of association: Kendall’s tau, Stuart’s tau, Somers’ and , and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients. See the section Exact Statistics for more information.
treats missing values as a valid nonmissing level for all TABLES variables. The MISSING option displays the missing levels in frequency and crosstabulation tables and includes them in all calculations of percentages, tests, and measures.
By default, if you do not specify the MISSING or MISSPRINT option, an observation is excluded from a table if it has a missing value for any of the variables in the TABLES request. When PROC FREQ excludes observations with missing values, it displays the total frequency of missing observations below the table. See the section Missing Values for more information.
displays missing value frequencies in frequency and crosstabulation tables but does not include the missing value frequencies in any computations of percentages, tests, or measures.
By default, if you do not specify the MISSING or MISSPRINT option, an observation is excluded from a table if it has a missing value for any of the variables in the TABLES request. When PROC FREQ excludes observations with missing values, it displays the total frequency of missing observations below the table. See the section Missing Values for more information.
suppresses the display of column percentages in crosstabulation table cells.
suppresses the display of cumulative frequencies and percentages in oneway frequency tables. The NOCUM option also suppresses the display of cumulative frequencies and percentages in crosstabulation tables in list format, which you request with the LIST option.
suppresses the display of cell frequencies in crosstabulation tables. The NOFREQ option also suppresses row total frequencies. This option has no effect for oneway tables or for crosstabulation tables in list format, which you request with the LIST option.
suppresses the display of overall percentages in crosstabulation tables. These percentages include the cell percentages of the total (twoway) table frequency, as well as the row and column percentages of the total table frequency. To suppress the display of cell percentages of row or column totals, use the NOROW or NOCOL option, respectively.
For oneway frequency tables and crosstabulation tables in list format, the NOPERCENT option suppresses the display of percentages and cumulative percentages.
suppresses the display of frequency and crosstabulation tables but displays all requested tests and statistics. To suppress the display of all output, including tests and statistics, use the NOPRINT option in the PROC FREQ statement.
suppresses the display of row percentages in crosstabulation table cells.
suppresses the display of cells with a zero frequency count in LIST output and omits them from the OUT= data set. The NOSPARSE option applies when you specify the ZEROS option in the WEIGHT statement to include observations with zero weights. By default, the ZEROS option invokes the SPARSE option, which displays table cells with a zero frequency count in the LIST output and includes them in the OUT= data set. See the description of the ZEROS option for more information.
The NOSPARSE option also suppresses the display of variable levels with zero frequency in CROSSLIST tables. By default for CROSSLIST tables, PROC FREQ displays all levels of the column variable within each level of the row variable, including any column variable levels with zero frequency for that row. For multiway tables displayed with the CROSSLIST option, the procedure displays all levels of the row variable for each stratum of the table by default, including any row variable levels with zero frequency for the stratum.
suppresses the log warning message about the validity of the asymptotic Pearson chisquare test. By default, PROC FREQ provides a warning about the validity of the asymptotic Pearson chisquare test when more than 20cells have expected frequencies that are less than 5. This warning message appears in the log if you specify the NOPRINT option in the PROC FREQ statement,
The NOWARN option is equivalent to the CHISQ(WARN=NOLOG) option. You can also use the CHISQ(WARN=) option to suppress the warning message in the display and to request a warning variable in the chisquare ODS output data set or in the OUTPUT data set.
names an output data set that contains frequency or crosstabulation table counts and percentages. If more than one table request appears in the TABLES statement, the contents of the OUT= data set correspond to the last table request in the TABLES statement. The OUT= data set variable COUNT contains the frequencies and the variable PERCENT contains the percentages. See the section Output Data Sets for details. You can specify the following options to include additional information in the OUT= data set: OUTCUM, OUTEXPECT, and OUTPCT.
includes cumulative frequencies and cumulative percentages in the OUT= data set for oneway tables. The variable CUM_FREQ contains the cumulative frequencies, and the variable CUM_PCT contains the cumulative percentages. See the section Output Data Sets for details. The OUTCUM option has no effect for twoway or multiway tables.
includes expected cell frequencies in the OUT= data set for crosstabulation tables. The variable EXPECTED contains the expected cell frequencies. See the section Output Data Sets for details. The EXPECTED option has no effect for oneway tables.
includes the following additional variables in the OUT= data set for crosstabulation tables:
percentage of column frequency
percentage of row frequency
percentage of stratum (twoway table) frequency, for way tables where
See the section Output Data Sets for details. The OUTPCT option has no effect for oneway tables.
requests the polychoric correlation coefficient. For tables, this statistic is more commonly known as the tetrachoric correlation coefficient, and it is labeled as such in the displayed output. See the section Polychoric Correlation for details. Also see the descriptions of the CONVERGE= and MAXITER= options, which you can specify to control the iterative computation of the polychoric correlation coefficient.
If you omit the MEASURES option, the PLCORR option invokes MEASURES.
controls the plots that are produced through ODS Graphics. Plotrequests identify the plots, and plotoptions control the appearance and content of the plots. You can specify plotoptions in parentheses following a plotrequest. A globalplotoption applies to all plots for which it is available, unless it is altered by a specific plotoption. You can specify globalplotoptions in parentheses following the PLOTS option.
When you specify only one plotrequest, you can omit the parentheses around the request. For example:
plots=all plots=freqplot plots=(freqplot oddsratioplot) plots(only)=(cumfreqplot deviationplot)
ODS Graphics must be enabled before requesting plots. For example:
ods graphics on; proc freq; tables treatment*response / chisq plots=freqplot; weight wt; run; ods graphics off;
For more information about enabling and disabling ODS Graphics, see the section Enabling and Disabling ODS Graphics in Chapter 21, Statistical Graphics Using ODS.
If ODS Graphics is enabled but you do not specify the PLOTS= option, PROC FREQ produces all plots that are associated with the analyses that you request with the exception of the frequency and cumulative frequency plots. To produce a frequency plot or cumulative frequency plot when ODS Graphics is enabled, you must specify the FREQPLOT or CUMFREQPLOT plotrequest, respectively, in the PLOTS= option. PROC FREQ produces the remaining plots (listed in Table 36.11) by default when you request the corresponding TABLES statement options. You can suppress default plots and request specific plots by using the PLOTS(ONLY)= option; PLOTS(ONLY)=(plotrequests) produces only the plots that are specified as plotrequests. You can suppress all plots with the PLOTS=NONE option. The PLOTS= option has no effect when you specify the NOPRINT option in the PROC FREQ statement.
Table 36.11 lists the available plotrequests, together with their plotoptions and required TABLES statement options.
Plot Request 
Plot Options 
Required TABLES Statement Option 

AGREE ( table) 

Oneway table request 

CHISQ (oneway table) 

Any table request 

Twoway or multiway table request 

( table) 

( table) 

( table) 

( table) 

( table, ) 

Also requires EXACT statment
Global Plot Options
A globalplotoption applies to all plots for which the option is available, unless it is altered by a specific plotoption. You can specify globalplotoptions in parentheses following the PLOTS option.
The following specific plotoptions are available as globalplotoptions: CLDISPLAY=, COLUMN=, EXACT, LOGBASE=, NPANELPOS=, ORDER=, ORIENT=, RANGE=, SCALE=, STATS, and TYPE=.
These plotoptions are described in the section "Plot Options." Additionally, you can specify the following globalplotoption in parentheses following the PLOTS option:
suppresses the default plots and requests only the plots that are specified as plotrequests.
Plot Requests
The following plotrequests are available with the PLOTS= option:
requests an agreement plot (Bangdiwala and Bryan 1987). An agreement plot displays the strength of agreement in a twoway table, where the row and column variables represent two independent ratings of subjects. See Bangdiwala (1988), Bangdiwala et al. (2008), and Friendly (2000, Section 3.7.2) for information about agreement plots.
To produce an agreement plot, you must also specify the AGREE option in the TABLES statement. Agreement statistics and plots are available for twoway square tables, where the number of rows equals the number of columns. The following plotoptions are available for AGREEPLOT: LEGEND=, PARTIAL=, SHOWSCALE=, and STATS.
requests all plots that are associated with the specified analyses. This is the default if you do not specify the PLOTS(ONLY) option.
requests a plot of cumulative frequencies. Cumulative frequency plots are available for oneway frequency tables. The following plotoptions are available for CUMFREQPLOT: ORIENT=, SCALE=, and TYPE=.
You must specify the CUMFREQPLOT plotrequest in the PLOTS= option to produce a cumulative frequency plot. Cumulative frequency plots are not produced by default when you request frequency or crosstabulation tables.
requests a plot of relative deviations from expected frequencies. Deviation plots are available for oneway frequency tables. To produce a deviation plot, you must also specify the CHISQ option in the TABLES statement. The following plotoptions are available for DEVIATIONPLOT: NOSTAT, ORIENT=, and TYPE=.
requests a frequency plot. Frequency plots are available for frequency and crosstabulation tables. For multiway tables, PROC FREQ provides a twoway frequency plot for each stratum.
The following plotoptions are available for FREQPLOT for all tables: ORIENT=, SCALE=, and TYPE=. Additionally, the TWOWAY= and NPANELPOS= plotoptions are available for twoway and multiway tables. You can use the TWOWAY= plotoption to specify the layout of a twoway frequency plot. The NPANELPOS= plotoption is not available with the TWOWAY=STACKED layout.
You must specify the FREQPLOT plotrequest in the PLOTS= option to produce a frequency plot. Frequency plots are not produced by default when you request frequency or crosstabulation tables.
requests a plot of kappa statistics and confidence limits. Kappa plots are available for multiway square tables. To produce a kappa plot, you must also specify the AGREE option in the TABLES statement. The following plotoptions are available for KAPPAPLOT: CLDISPLAY=, NPANELPOS=, ORDER=, RANGE=, and STATS.
suppresses all plots.
requests a plot of odds ratios with confidence limits. Odds ratio plots are available for multiway tables. To produce an odds ratio plot, you must also specify the MEASURES or RELRISK option in the TABLES statement. The following plotoptions are available for ODDSRATIOPLOT: CLDISPLAY=, EXACT, LOGBASE=, NPANELPOS=, ORDER=, RANGE=, and STATS. If you request a plot of exact confidence limits by specifying the EXACT plotoption, you must also request computation of exact confidence limits by specifying the OR option in the EXACT statement.
requests a plot of relative risks with confidence limits. Relative risk plots are available for multiway tables. To produce a relative risk plot, you must also specify the MEASURES or RELRISK option in the TABLES statement. The following plotoptions are available for RELRISKPLOT: CLDISPLAY=, COLUMN=, EXACT, LOGBASE=, NPANELPOS=, ORDER=, RANGE=, and STATS. If you request a plot of exact confidence limits by specifying the EXACT plotoption, you must also request computation of exact confidence limits by specifying the RELRISK option in the EXACT statement.
requests a plot of risk (proportion) differences with confidence limits. Risk difference plots are available for multiway tables. To produce a risk difference plot, you must also specify the RISKDIFF option in the TABLES statement. The following plotoptions are available for RISKDIFFPLOT: CLDISPLAY=, COLUMN=, EXACT, NPANELPOS=, ORDER=, RANGE=, and STATS.
If you request a plot of exact confidence limits by specifying the EXACT plotoption, you must also request computation of exact confidence limits by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement. If you do not specify the EXACT plotoption, the risk difference plot displays the Wald confidence limits that are produced by the RISKDIFF option by default and displayed in the "Risk Estimates" table.
requests a plot of weighted kappa statistics with confidence limits. Weighted kappa plots are available for multiway square tables. To produce a weighted kappa plot, you must also specify the AGREE option in the TABLES statement. Note that simple kappa and weighted kappa statistics are the same for tables; therefore, the procedure does not present weighted kappa statistics for tables. The following plotoptions are available for WTKAPPAPLOT: CLDISPLAY=, NPANELPOS=, ORDER=, RANGE=, and STATS.
Plot Options
You can specify the following plotoptions in parentheses after a plotrequest:
controls the appearance of the confidence limit error bars. The CLDISPLAY= plotoption is available for the following plots: KAPPAPLOT, ODDSRATIOPLOT, RELRISKPLOT, RISKDIFFPLOT, and WTKAPPAPLOT.
The default value is CLDISPLAY=SERIF, which displays the confidence limits as lines with serifs. CLDISPLAY=LINE displays the confidence limits as plain lines without serifs. CLDISPLAY=BAR displays the confidence limits as bars. By default, the width of the bars equals the size of the marker for the estimate. You can control the width of the bars and the size of the marker by specifying the value of width as a percentage of the distance between bars, . The bar might disappear when the value of width is very small.
specifies the table column to use to compute the risk (proportion). The COLUMN= plotoption is available for the relative risk plot (RELRISKPLOT) and the risk difference plot (RISKDIFFPLOT). If you specify COLUMN=1, the plot displays the column 1 risk differences or the column 1 relative risks. Similarly, if you specify COLUMN=2, the plot displays the column 2 risk differences or relative risks. The default is COLUMN=1.
requests exact confidence limits instead of asymptotic confidence limits. The EXACT plotoption is available for the odds ratio plot (ODDSRATIOPLOT), the relative risk plot (RELRISKPLOT), and the risk difference plot (RISKDIFFPLOT). If you specify the EXACT plotoption, you must also request computation of the exact confidence limits by specifying the corresponding option in the EXACT statement.
applies to the odds ratio plot (ODDSRATIOPLOT) and the relative risk plot (RELRISKPLOT). LOGBASE= displays the odds ratio or relative risk axis on the specified log scale.
applies to the agreement plot (AGREEPLOT). LEGEND=NO suppresses the legend that identifies the areas of exact and partial agreement. The default is LEGEND=YES.
applies to the deviation plot (DEVIATIONPLOT). NOSTAT suppresses the chisquare pvalue that is displayed by default in the deviation plot.
applies to the following plots: FREQPLOT (for twoway and multiway tables), KAPPAPLOT, ODDSRATIOPLOT, RELRISKPLOT, RISKDIFFPLOT, and WTKAPPAPLOT.
NPANELPOS= divides the plot into multiple panels that display at most statistics per panel. If n is positive, the number of statistics per panel is balanced; but if n is negative, the number of statistics per panel is not balanced. By default, and all statistics are displayed in a single plot. For example, suppose you want to display 21 odds ratios. Then NPANELPOS=20 displays two panels, the first with 11 odds ratios and the second with 10; NPANELPOS=–20 displays 20 odds ratios in the first panel but only one in the second.
For twoway frequency plots, NPANELPOS= divides the plot into multiple panels that display at most levels of the row variable per panel. The NPANELPOS= plotoption applies to twoway plots that are displayed with grouped layout, which you specify with the TWOWAY=GROUPVERTICAL or TWOWAY=GROUPHORIZONTAL plotoption. The NPANELPOS= plotoption does not apply to the TWOWAY=STACKED layout.
displays the statistics in sorted order. By default, the statistics are displayed in the order in which the corresponding strata appear in the multiway table display. The ORDER= plotoption applies to the following plots: KAPPAPLOT, ODDSRATIOPLOT, RELRISKPLOT, RISKDIFFPLOT, and WTKAPPAPLOT.
controls the orientation of the plot. The ORIENT= plotoption applies to the following plots: CUMFREQPLOT, DEVIATIONPLOT, and FREQPLOT.
ORIENT=HORIZONTAL places the variable levels on the Y axis and the frequencies, percentages, or statisticvalues on the X axis. ORIENT=VERTICAL places the variable levels on the X axis. The default orientation is ORIENT=VERTICAL for bar charts (TYPE=BARCHART) and ORIENT=HORIZONTAL for dot plots (TYPE=DOTPLOT).
controls the display of partial agreement in the agreement plot (AGREEPLOT). PARTIAL=NO suppresses the display of partial agreement. When you specify PARTIAL=NO, the agreement plot displays only exact agreement. Exact agreement includes the diagonal cells of the square table, where the row and column variable levels are the same. Partial agreement includes the adjacent offdiagonal table cells, where the row and column values are within one level of exact agreement. The default is PARTIAL=YES.
specifies the range of values to display. The RANGE= plotoption applies to the following plots: KAPPAPLOT, ODDSRATIOPLOT, RELRISKPLOT, RISKDIFFPLOT, and WTKAPPAPLOT. If you specify RANGE=CLIP, the confidence limits are clipped and the display range is determined by the minimum and maximum values of the estimates. By default, the display range includes all confidence limits.
specifies the scale of the frequencies to display. The SCALE= plotoption applies to the frequency plot (FREQPLOT) and the cumulative frequency plot (CUMFREQPLOT).
The default is SCALE=FREQ, which displays unscaled frequencies. SCALE=LOG displays log (base 10) frequencies. SCALE=PERCENT displays percentages (relative frequencies). SCALE=SQRT displays square roots of the frequencies, which produces a plot known as a rootogram.
controls the display of the cumulative frequency scale on the right side of the agreement plot (AGREEPLOT). SHOWSCALE=NO suppresses the display of the scale. The default is SHOWSCALE=YES.
displays statistic values in the plot. For the following plots, the STATS plotoption displays the statistics and their confidence limits on the right side of the plot: KAPPAPLOT, ODDSRATIOPLOT, RELRISKPLOT, RISKDIFFPLOT, and WTKAPPAPLOT.
For the agreement plot (AGREEPLOT), STATS displays the values of the kappa statistic, the weighted kappa statistic, and the measure (Bangdiwala 1987).
If you do not request the STATS plotoption, these plots do not display the statistic values.
specifies the layout for a twoway frequency plot (FREQPLOT). The TWOWAY= plotoption applies to frequency plots for twoway and multiway table requests; PROC FREQ produces a twoway frequency plot for each stratum of a multiway table request.
TWOWAY=GROUPVERTICAL produces a grouped plot with a vertical common baseline. The plot is grouped by the row variable, which is the first variable that you specify in a twoway table request. TWOWAY=GROUPHORIZONTAL produces a grouped plot with a horizontal common baseline.
TWOWAY=STACKED produces stacked frequency plots for twoway tables. In a stacked bar chart, the bars correspond to the column variable values, and the row frequencies are stacked within each column. In a stacked dot plot, the dotted lines correspond to the columns, and the row frequencies within columns are plotted as data dots on the same column line.
The default twoway layout is TWOWAY=GROUPVERTICAL. The ORIENT=, SCALE=, and TYPE= plotoptions are available for each TWOWAY= layout.
specifies the plot type for frequency (FREQPLOT), cumulative frequency (CUMFREQPLOT), and deviation plots (DEVIATIONPLOT). TYPE=BARCHART produces a bar chart, and TYPE=DOTPLOT produces a dot plot. The default is TYPE=BARCHART.
displays the weights that PROC FREQ uses to compute the weighted kappa coefficient. You must also specify the AGREE option to request the weighted kappa coefficient. You can specify (WT=FC) with the AGREE option to request FleissCohen weights. By default, PROC FREQ uses CicchettiAllison weights to compute the weighted kappa coefficient. See the section Weighted Kappa Coefficient for details.
requests relative risk measures and their confidence limits for tables. These measures include the odds ratio and the column 1 and 2 relative risks. See the section Odds Ratio and Relative Risks for 2 x 2 Tables for details.
You can also obtain the RELRISK measures by specifying the MEASURES option, which produces other measures of association in addition to the relative risks.
You can request exact confidence limits for the odds ratio by specifying the OR option in the EXACT statement. You can request exact unconditional confidence limits for the relative risks by specifying the RELRISK option in the EXACT statement. See the sections Exact Confidence Limits for the Odds Ratio and Exact Unconditional Confidence Limits for the Relative Risk for more information.
requests risks (binomial proportions) and risk differences for tables. When you specify the RISKDIFF option, PROC FREQ provides the row 1 risk, row 2 risk, total (overall) risk, and risk difference (row 1 – row 2), together with their asymptotic standard errors and Wald confidence limits. PROC FREQ also provides exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits for the row 1, row 2, and total risks by default. You can request exact unconditional confidence limits for the risk difference by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement. See the section Risks and Risk Differences for details. PROC FREQ displays these results in the column 1 and column 2 "Risk Estimates" tables.
You can specify riskdiffoptions inside parentheses following the RISKDIFF option to request tests and additional confidence limits for the risk difference. Table 36.12 summarizes the riskdiffoptions.
The EQUIV, NONINF, and SUP riskdiffoptions request tests of equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority, respectively, for the risk difference. Available test methods include FarringtonManning, HauckAnderson, and Newcombe score, in addition to the Wald test.
As part of the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence analyses, PROC FREQ provides testbased confidence limits that have a confidence coefficient of % (Schuirmann 1999). The ALPHA= option determines the confidence level, and the default of ALPHA=0.05 produces 90% confidence limits. See the sections Noninferiority Tests and Equivalence Tests for details.
The CL= riskdiffoption requests confidence limits for the risk difference. Available confidence limit types include exact unconditional, FarringtonManning, HauckAnderson, Newcombe score, and Wald. You can request more than one type of confidence limits in the same analysis. If you specify the CORRECT riskdiffoption, PROC FREQ includes continuity corrections in the Newcombe and Wald confidence limits. PROC FREQ displays the confidence limits in the "Proportion (Risk) Difference Confidence Limits" table.
The ALPHA= option determines the level of the confidence limits that the CL= riskdiffoption provides. The default of ALPHA=0.05 produces 95% confidence limits for the risk difference.
The CL=EXACT riskdiffoption displays exact unconditional confidence limits in the "Proportion (Risk) Difference Confidence Limits" table. When you use CL=EXACT, you must also request computation of the exact confidence limits by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement.
Option 
Description 

Specifies the risk column 

Requests continuity correction 

Suppresses default risk tables 

Request Confidence Limits 

Displays exact confidence limits 

Requests FarringtonManning confidence limits 

Requests HauckAnderson confidence limits 

Requests Newcombe confidence limits 

Requests Wald confidence limits 

Request Tests 

Requests an equality test 

Requests an equivalence test 

Requests a noninferiority test 

Requests a superiority test 

Specifies the test margin 

Specifies the test method 

Specifies the test variance 
You can specify the following riskdiffoptions inside parentheses following the RISKDIFF option:
requests confidence limits for the risk difference. You can specify one or more types of confidence limits. PROC FREQ displays the confidence limits in the "Proportion (Risk) Difference Confidence Limits" table.
The ALPHA= option determines the confidence level, and the default of ALPHA=0.05 produces 95% confidence limits for the risk difference. This differs from the testbased confidence limits that are provided with the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority tests (EQUIV, NONINF, and SUP), which have a confidence coefficient of % (Schuirmann 1999).
You can specify CL= with or without requests for risk difference tests. The confidence limits produced by CL= do not depend on the tests that you request and do not use the value of the test margin (which is specified by the MARGIN= riskdiffoption).
You can control the risk column for the confidence limits with the COLUMN= riskdiffoption. If you do not specify COLUMN=, PROC FREQ provides confidence limits for the column 1 risk difference by default.
The following types of confidence limits are available:
displays exact unconditional confidence limits for the risk difference in the "Proportion (Risk) Difference Confidence Limits" table. You must also request computation of the exact confidence limits by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement.
PROC FREQ computes the confidence limits by inverting two separate onesided exact tests (tail method), where the tests are based on the unstandardized risk difference by default. If you specify the RISKDIFF(METHOD=FMSCORE) option in the EXACT statement, the tests are based on the FarringtonManning score statistic. See the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement and the section Exact Unconditional Confidence Limits for the Risk Difference for more information.
By default, PROC FREQ also displays these exact confidence limits in the "Risk Estimates" table. You can suppress this table by specifying the NORISKS riskdiffoption.
requests FarringtonManning confidence limits for the risk difference. See the subsection FarringtonManning Confidence Limits in the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits for details.
You can specify the null value of the risk difference for the FarringtonManning computations by including NULL=value in parentheses following FM. The null risk difference value must be between –1 and 1. If you do not specify NULL=, the computations use a null risk difference of 0 by default. This differs from the FarringtonManning confidence limits that are provided with the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority tests, which use a null value based on the test margin (which is specified by the MARGIN= riskdiffoption).
requests HauckAnderson confidence limits for the risk difference. See the subsection HauckAnderson Confidence Limits in the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits for details.
requests Newcombe score confidence limits for the risk difference. If you specify the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Newcombe confidence limits include a continuity correction. See the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits for details.
requests Wald confidence limits for the risk difference. If you specify the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Wald confidence limits include a continuity correction.
By default, the Wald confidence limits are computed by using a samplebased variance. If you specify NULL=value in parentheses following WALD, the confidence limit computations use a testbased variance with a null risk difference of value. The null value must be between –1 and 1. If you specify NULL but do not specify value, the computations use a testbased variance with a null value of 0.
See the subsection Wald Confidence Limits in the section Risk Difference Confidence Limits for details.
specifies the table column for which to compute the risk difference tests (EQUAL, EQUIV, NONINF, and SUP) and the risk difference confidence limits (which are requested by the CL= riskdiffoption).
If you do not specify COLUMN=, PROC FREQ provides the risk difference tests and confidence limits for column 1 by default. The COLUMN= option has no effect on the "Risk Estimates" table, which is produced for both column 1 and column 2. You can suppress the "Risk Estimates" table by specifying the NORISKS riskdiffoption.
includes a continuity correction in the Wald confidence limits, Wald tests, and Newcombe score confidence limits. See the section Risks and Risk Differences for details. The RISKDIFF(CORRECT) option is equivalent to the RISKDIFFC option.
requests a test of the null hypothesis that the risk difference equals zero. PROC FREQ provides an asymptotic Wald test of equality. If you specify the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Wald test includes a continuity correction. If you specify the VAR=NULL riskdiffoption, the test uses the null (testbased) variance instead of the samplebased variance. See the section Equality Test for details.
requests a test of equivalence for the risk difference. See the section Equivalence Tests for details. You can specify the equivalence test margins with the MARGIN= riskdiffoption and the test method with the METHOD= riskdiffoption. PROC FREQ uses METHOD=WALD by default.
specifies the margin for the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence tests, which you request with the NONINF, SUP, and EQUIV riskdiffoptions, respectively. If you do not specify MARGIN=, PROC FREQ uses a margin of 0.2 by default.
For noninferiority and superiority tests, specify a single value for MARGIN=. The MARGIN= value must be a positive number. You can specify value as a number between 0 and 1. Or you can specify value in percentage form as a number between 1 and 100, and PROC FREQ converts that number to a proportion. The procedure treats the value 1 as 1%.
For an equivalence test, you can specify a single MARGIN= value, or you can specify both lower and upper values. If you specify a single MARGIN= value, it must be a positive number, as described previously. If you specify a single MARGIN= value for an equivalence test, PROC FREQ uses –value as the lower margin and value as the upper margin for the test. If you specify both lower and upper values for an equivalence test, you can specify them in proportion form as numbers between –1 or 1. Or you can specify them in percentage form as numbers between –100 and 100, and PROC FREQ converts the numbers to proportions. The value of lower must be less than the value of upper.
specifies the method for the noninferiority, superiority, and equivalence analyses, which you request with the NONINF, SUP, and EQUIV riskdiffoptions, respectively. If you do not specify the METHOD= riskdiffoption, PROC FREQ uses METHOD=WALD by default.
The following methods are available:
requests FarringtonManning tests and testbased confidence limits for the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority analyses. See the subsection FarringtonManning Test in the section Noninferiority Tests for details.
requests HauckAnderson tests and confidence limits for the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority analyses. See the subsection HauckAnderson Test in the section Noninferiority Tests for details.
requests Newcombe score confidence limits for the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority analyses. If you specify the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Newcombe confidence limits include a continuity correction. See the subsection Newcombe Score Confidence Limits in the section Noninferiority Tests for details.
requests Wald tests and confidence limits for the equivalence, noninferiority, and superiority analyses. If you specify the CORRECT riskdiffoption, the Wald confidence limits include a continuity correction. If you specify the VAR=NULL riskdiffoption, the tests and confidence limits use the null (testbased) variance instead of the samplebased variance. See the subsection Wald Test in the section Noninferiority Tests for details.
requests a test of noninferiority for the risk difference. See the section Noninferiority Tests for details. You can specify the test margin with the MARGIN= riskdiffoption and the test method with the METHOD= riskdiffoption. PROC FREQ uses METHOD=WALD by default.
suppresses display of the "Risk Estimates" tables, which the RISKDIFF option produces by default for column 1 and column 2. The "Risk Estimates" tables contain the risks and risk differences, together with their asymptotic standard errors, Wald confidence limits, and exact confidence limits.
requests a test of superiority for the binomial proportion. See the section Superiority Test for details. You can specify the test margin with the MARGIN= riskdiffoption and the test method with the METHOD= riskdiffoption. PROC FREQ uses METHOD=WALD by default.
specifies the type of variance estimate to use in the Wald tests of noninferiority, superiority, equivalence, and equality. The default is VAR=SAMPLE, which uses the samplebased variance. VAR=NULL uses a testbased variance that is computed from the null hypothesis risk difference value. See the sections Equality Test and Noninferiority Tests for details.
requests the RISKDIFF statistics for tables and includes continuity corrections in the Wald confidence limits, Wald tests, and Newcombe confidence limits. Specifying RISKDIFFC is equivalent to specifying the RISKDIFF(CORRECT) option.
The RISKDIFF statistics include risks (binomial proportions) and risk differences for tables. PROC FREQ provides the row 1 risk, row 2 risk, total risk, and risk difference (row 1 – row 2), together with their asymptotic standard errors and Wald confidence limits. PROC FREQ also provides exact (ClopperPearson) confidence limits for the row 1, row 2, and total risks by default. You can request exact unconditional confidence limits for the risk difference by specifying the RISKDIFF option in the EXACT statement.
You can specify riskdiffoptions inside parentheses following RISKDIFFC to request tests and additional confidence limits for the risk difference. The riskdiffoptions are the same as those available with the RISKDIFF option (Table 36.12). See the description of the RISKDIFF option and the section Risks and Risk Differences for details.
specifies the type of row and column scores that PROC FREQ uses to compute the following statistics: MantelHaenszel chisquare, Pearson correlation, CochranArmitage test for trend, weighted kappa coefficient, and CochranMantelHaenszel statistics. The value of type can be one of the following:
MODRIDIT
RANK
RIDIT
TABLE
See the section Scores for descriptions of these score types.
If you do not specify the SCORES= option, PROC FREQ uses SCORES=TABLE by default. For character variables, the row and column TABLE scores are the row and column numbers. That is, the TABLE score is 1 for row 1, 2 for row 2, and so on. For numeric variables, the row and column TABLE scores equal the variable values. See the section Scores for details. Using MODRIDIT, RANK, or RIDIT scores yields nonparametric analyses.
You can use the SCOROUT option to display the row and column scores.
displays the row and column scores that PROC FREQ uses to compute scorebased tests and statistics. You can specify the score type with the SCORES= option. See the section Scores for details.
The scores are computed and displayed only when PROC FREQ computes statistics for twoway tables. You can use ODS to store the scores in an output data set. See the section ODS Table Names for more information.
reports all possible combinations of the variable values for an nway table when , even if a combination does not occur in the data. The SPARSE option applies only to crosstabulation tables displayed in LIST format and to the OUT= output data set. If you do not use the LIST or OUT= option, the SPARSE option has no effect.
When you specify the SPARSE and LIST options, PROC FREQ displays all combinations of variable values in the table listing, including those with a frequency count of zero. By default, without the SPARSE option, PROC FREQ does not display zerofrequency levels in LIST output. When you use the SPARSE and OUT= options, PROC FREQ includes empty crosstabulation table cells in the output data set. By default, PROC FREQ does not include zerofrequency table cells in the output data set.
See the section Missing Values for more information.
specifies the null hypothesis frequencies for a oneway chisquare goodnessoffit test, which you request with the CHISQ option. See the section ChiSquare Test for OneWay Tables for details.
You can separate the TESTF= values with blanks or commas. The number of values must equal the number of variable levels in the oneway table. The sum of the values must equal the total frequency for the oneway table. List the values in the order in which the corresponding variable levels appear in the output. If you omit the CHISQ option, the TESTF= option invokes CHISQ.
specifies the null hypothesis proportions for a oneway chisquare goodnessoffit test, which you request with the CHISQ option. See the section ChiSquare Test for OneWay Tables for details.
You can separate the TESTP= values with blanks or commas. The number of values must equal the number of variable levels in the oneway table. List the values in the order in which the corresponding variable levels appear in the output. You can specify values in probability form as numbers between 0 and 1, where the proportions sum to 1. Or you can specify values in percentage form as numbers between 0 and 100, where the percentages sum to 100. If you omit the CHISQ option, the TESTP= option invokes CHISQ.
displays the percentage of the total multiway table frequency in crosstabulation tables for way tables, where . By default, PROC FREQ displays the percentage of the individual twoway table frequency but does not display the percentage of the total frequency for multiway crosstabulation tables. See the section Multiway Tables for more information.
The percentage of total multiway table frequency is displayed by default when you specify the LIST option. It is also provided by default in the PERCENT variable in the OUT= output data set.
requests the CochranArmitage test for trend. The table must be or to compute the trend test. See the section CochranArmitage Test for Trend for details.