Saturday, July 16, 2016


Herriman Saturday

December 1 1908 -- Looks like a big month for boxing, with a big highlight on the 26th, when Jack Johnson will fight a regular in the Los Angeles boxing rings, Tommy Burns. Except they won't be anywhere near LA -- the interracial title fight will be held in Australia.


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Friday, July 15, 2016


History of Newspaper Syndicates by Elmo Scott Watson: Chapter 9


The News Syndicates

Although "newspaper syndicates" and "press association" ("news services" or "news agencies") are commonly regarded as two very different types of journalistic enterprises, essentially their functions are the same. Both furnish a newspaper with reading matter which members of its staff are unable to supply. The newspaper syndicate provides feature material and the press association, news from outside the newspaper's territory. Thus the press association is in fact a syndicate, selling state, national and international news.

As stated in Chapter 1, the first example of newspaper syndication in the United States was the distribution of a news story. That was President John Tyler's annual message to congress, which Moses Yale Beach of the New York Sun sold in the form of a printed sheet to other newspapers in 1841. Moreover, the printed sheets supplied regularly by Atwood and Rublee of the Wisconsin State Journal, first to A. N. Kellogg of the Baraboo (Wis.) Republic in 1861 and later to other weeklies in the Badger state, contained news as well as "miscellany" (feature material). The same was true of the printed sheets sold by Cramer, Aikens and Cramer of the Milwaukee Evening Wisconsin. Very soon after the first independent syndicate was organized by Kellogg in Chicago its service included one column of news.

In 1873 the Chicago Newspaper Union began offering state news in its readyprint and from that time on the early syndicates supplying the country field included news matter in their services. In fact, the idea of a weekly "News Review," an interpretative news feature now so popular in many metropolitan papers, originated in the service of one of these syndicates—the Western Newspaper Union, which started it in 1914.

In 1883 the Kellogg Newspaper company inaugurated the practice of supplying daily papers with a daily news service in plates, which, according to a Kellogg advertisement, "furnished a complete summary, morning and evening, of the day and night telegraphic news, thus enabling the country daily to compete successfully with metropolitan papers in giving the important news of the day well digested and comprehensively edited and prepared for such service." Kellogg was able to do this, as was the American Press Association later, through a contract with the Associated Press to deliver copies of its daily report as received.

As both syndicates developed this feature of their service, their patrons often were able to print news from stereotype plates as soon, if not sooner, than member newspapers of the Associated Press who received the report by wire and had to set it in type. Objection to this practice by the member papers, because they were thus fostering competition with themselves, resulted in the Associated Press declining to renew this arrangement with both syndicates when their contracts expired. Thereafter the Kellogg company obtained a news service through the Chicago Inter-Ocean from the New York World and the American Press Association got its news reports from the New York Sun.

The Western Newspaper Union also maintained a daily plate service for a number of years and in 1913 supplemented this with a daily news picture mat service which continued until 1918. Suspended during the war, this was resumed in 1922 when a daily mat service of both pictures and reading matter was inaugurated and continued until 1924.

Thus it will be seen that the service of the feature syndicates overlapped that of the press associations and continues to do so, to some extent, even today. Similarly, as noted in previous chapters, the service of the press associations has overlapped that of the feature syndicates, a fact which has become especially noticeable during the last decade.

The history of press associations in their original role of news-gathering and news-distributing organizations began in New York about 1830 when the Association of Morning Newspapers was founded to maintain boats to meet incoming ships bringing European news. In 1849 the Harbor News Association (which Beach had helped establish the previous year) was reorganized and a little later the Telegraphic and General News Association was founded. In 1856 these two organizations were consolidated into the General News Association of the City of New York, which has been called the "Father of All Associated Presses."

Out of this association grew the New York Associated Press, founded in 1857 as a cooperative organization of New York papers, who pooled their news-gathering and news-distribution efforts during the Civil War. Later the New York Associated Press began selling (or "syndicating") its news reports to papers outside New York City and eventually a number of sectional news-gathering agencies, such as the New England Associated Press, the Southern Associated Press and the Western Associated Press, came into existence.

A rival national organization, the United Press, was established by the newspapers that were not affiliated with the New York Associated Press, but in 1892 it combined with the latter organization.1  Late in the same year the Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois, to succeed the Western Associated Press. Prominent in the new set-up were Victor F. Lawson, who in 1888 had bought the Chicago Daily News from his partner, Melville E. Stone.2  Through the influence of Lawson, Stone became general manager of the Associated Press in 1893 and this marked the beginning of the rise of the AP to its position of supremacy in the press association world.

One of the first things Stone did was to go to London to secure a contract with the Reuter Telegram Company, and through it, with the Havas Agency of Paris and the Wolff Agency of Berlin. The contract which the New York Associated Press had had with these agencies since 1865 expired on January 1, 1893. Stone's coup in obtaining this valuable European connection was a death blow to the United Press, which went into the hands of a receiver in 1897. Furthermore, under Stone's direction, the Associated Press in May, 1900, was incorporated under the Membership Corporation law in New York as a purely cooperative association that could declare no dividends and that shared the cost of operations among its members. By doing this it could limit its membership and serve only its members, despite the fact that the Illinois supreme court, in a test case, had ruled that the Associated Press was a common carrier and must furnish its news to any paper that was willing to pay for it. From that time on the Associated Press operated as a mutual news-gathering and news-distributing organization serving only its member papers who hold an AP franchise, in contrast to the other press associations who sell their news service to any newspaper.

In 1921 Stone retired as general manager of the Associated Press, although he remained as counsellor for it until his death in 1925. He was succeeded by Frederick Roy Martin, who in turn was succeeded by Kent Cooper in 1925. Under Cooper's regime a feature service, an outgrowth of a mail and obituary service which had been in operation for some years, was established on January 1, 1927. At present approximately 1,100 of the 1,350 members of the Associated Press use one or more divisions of the feature service.

The service is classified in five divisions: 1. the basic proof sheets carrying text matter—-close-to-the-news stories, set features, special articles on sports, science, agriculture, fashions, food, aviation, religion, finance, radio, etc.; 2. the feature service mats, supplying mats of all illustrations on the proof sheets, in addition to crossword puzzles, radio programs, style, interior decoration and house plan features going only to feature mat subscribers. (There are separate services of proofsheets and feature mats for morning and evening papers) ; 3. the daily news photo mats, prepared in five regional strategic centers and sent daily from these matting centers to members; 4. the comics and daily news cartoon budget comprising a three-column cartoon, five comic strips and four comic panels; 5. the state mat services, which supplement the daily news photo mats with subjects of primary interest to their states, are prepared by the state bureaus and sent only to members in the states where the pictures originated.

The Associated Press' latest expansion was Wirephoto, for the quick transmission of news pictures, which was inaugurated on January 1, 1935. It is now participated in by 55 member newspapers served with prints and by more than 500 through the news photo mat service. Altogether approximately 1,000 member newspapers participate in some manner in the picture service, which, like the feature service, is available only to newspapers which are members of the association.

During the time that Melville Stone was building up the Associated Press to its position of supremacy in the news field, a new competitor sprang up. This was the Scripps-McRae Press Association, organized in January, 1897, primarily to serve the newspapers in the Scripps-McRae League, although later it began selling its news to other papers.3  When the United Press went into receivership, the Publishers' Press Association was organized in New York City. The Scripps-McRae Association and the Publishers' Press entered into an arrangement by which the former covered the territory west of Pittsburgh and the latter east of that city.

In 1904 Scripps-McRae bought out the Publishers' Press and three years later the two associations were reorganized by E. W. Scripps as the United Press Associations, now popularly known as the United Press. At first the United Press maintained a news service only for evening and Sunday papers but later the United News was established in connection with the UP to serve morning papers. Both sold news to any newspapers willing to buy it, whether or not competing papers in the same field were already using it or were members of the Associated Press.

In 1912 Roy W. Howard, who had been New York manager of the Publishers' Press Association and later of the United Press Associations, became president and general manager of the United Press. Under his management the organization, especially during the war, gained rapidly in prestige and number of clients. It established bureaus in a number of European cities and soon grew into a world-wide organization.

From the beginning of the UP the importance of human interest had been stressed in its news and this was emphasized even more under Howard. “Interviews and features were to be played up in preference to mere routine. Signed articles, written by and from the angle of the men and women making the news, were introduced as a regular part of the day's report . . . . The United Press was working in intimate cooperation with Scripps services supplying features to the same journals; it took the lead in graphic news-feature stories, in news photography, in special signed correspondence, in covering distinct fields such as sports or politics, by particular assignments by special writers."4

These policies, inaugurated by Howard, were continued by William Waller Hawkins, who succeeded him in 1920, by Karl A. Bickel, who became president in 1923, and by Hugh Baillie, the present executive, who succeeded Bickel in 1934. Its service today includes an eight-hour daily leased wire news service, delivered by teletype; a "pony" service delivered by telephone; and the Red Letter, a daily mail service, which includes a full newspaper page of advance news, "canned cable," sport gossip, Washington letter and Paris fashions.

The history of the third of the leading press associations, or news syndicates, the International News Service, has been given in a previous chapter in its relation to the Hearst syndicates. One other such organization which combined both the news and feature characteristics deserves mention. That was the Consolidated Press Association.

In 1919 David Lawrence resigned as correspondent for the New York Evening Post and began syndicating his telegraphic Washington correspondence under the name of David Lawrence, Inc. The next year he reorganized and enlarged the service and began operating under the name of the Consolidated Press Association.

His was a service for evening and Sunday morning papers only and was sold to not more than one paper in a town to be used to supplement or substitute for parts of the regular news report obtained from press associations. Later by a combination with the Chicago Daily News, the distribution of the latter's extensive foreign correspondence, coming from 20 special correspondents abroad, was included in the service.

The value of these news stories lay largely in the prominence of the writers under whose by-lines they appeared and the announced object of the service was to "give the news behind the news," to furnish "a national perspective to the day's developments in sports, business, politics and economics" with interpretations by specialists in those fields. Subsequent additions included fashion news, radio activities and "big events" covered by specially-assigned staff men.

While headquarters remained at Washington, offices were established in New York, Chicago and San Francisco, all linked together by telegraph trunk lines which facilitated the speed of delivery to the papers purchasing the service. For papers not on the leased wire circuit, live news was relayed in the form of press messages and other matter, in which the element of time was not so important, was sent by mail from the nearest distributing center. This service continued until 1930, when it was absorbed by the North American Newspaper Alliance, another news feature organization (noted in a previous chapter) similar to the Associated Press in the mutual element of its operations.

In addition to these various co-operative press associations, represented today by the Associated Press and the North American Newspaper Alliance, and the news agencies or news services, represented by the United Press and the International News Service, various newspapers have "syndicated" their news to other papers. Among the first to do this were the New York World and the New York Sun, and later the Philadelphia Ledger. The list of those who do it now includes the New York Herald Tribune, New York Times, Chicago Tribune, Philadelphia Ledger, Baltimore Sun and Washington Post.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

1. This was the "old United Press," referred to in Chapter 6, and should not be confused with the "new United Press'' or United Press Associations, founded by E. W. Scripps in 1906 by consolidating the Scripps-McRae Association and the Publishers' Press association.

2. Stone was born in Hudson, Ill., in 1848. His first newspaper experience was as a reporter on the Chicago Tribune in 1864 and from 1871 to 1874 he edited several Chicago dailies. With a partner he established the Chicago Daily News in 1875 and the next year bought out the partner and sold that interest to Victor F. Lawson. Stone served as general manager of the AF for more than a quarter of a century. He died in 1925.

3. This league, the first chain of newspapers, was founded in 1895. It was headed by E. W. Scripps, who retired in 1908. Roy W. Howard became general manager in 1920 and two years later the name was changed to the Scripps-Howard Newspapers. Scripps died in 1926 at the age of seventy-one.

4. Rosewater, "History of Co-operative News Gathering in the United States."


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Thursday, July 14, 2016


Ink-Slinger Profiles by Alex Jay: Walter J. Enright


Walter Joseph Enright was born in Chicago, Illinois, on July 3, 1879, according to Who Was Who in America with World Notables, Volume V, 1969–1973.

In the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, Enright was the sixth of eight children born to John W. and Mary B. (Croghan), both Irish emigrants. His father was associated with wholesale liquor. The family resided in Chicago.

Enright was an artist in the 1900 census. He was in parents’ household and lived in Chicago at 715 Jackson Street. Who Was Who said Enright was educated in Chicago at the Armour Institute of Technology and studied at the Art Institute. Enright was listed in the American Art Annuals for 1907–1908 and 1909–1910.

According to the Cook County, Illinois, Marriage Index, at, Enright married Maginel Wright on October 26, 1904 in Oak Park, Illinois. Maginel was an illustrator and younger sister of architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Enright illustrated L. Frank Baum’s Father Goose’s Year Book: Quaint Quacks and Feathered Shafts for Mature Children. Maginel illustrated Laura Bancroft’s Policeman Bluejay. Both books were published in 1907. 

Enright’s home in the 1910 census was Manhattan, New York City at 561 West 141st Street. Enright and his wife had a two-year-old daughter, Elizabeth who would become an illustrator. Husband and wife were magazine illustrators. Who Was Who named some of the magazines with his art: Life, Judge, Scribner’s and Collier’s. He also contributed to Everybody’s Magazine.

Scribner’s 12/1920

Enright served during World War I as a first lieutenant. He was stationed in France from July 21, 1918 to May 5, 1919 and was honorably discharged May 23, 1919. His residence at the time was 20 West 10th Street in Manhattan.

Aerial Age Weekly noted Enright’s early service in its February 4, 1918 issue: “To be First Lieutenants, Aviation Section, Signal Reserve: …Walter J. Enright”, and the issued dated February 11, 1918: “Walter Joseph Enright appointed first lieutenant; report to Aviation Experimental School, Langley Field, Hampton, Va.”

The 1920 census recorded illustrator Enright, who lived alone, in Manhattan at 23 East 9th Street. Sometime after the census, Enright and his wife divorced.

Enright’s second marriage was reported in The Fourth Estate, July 8, 1922.

Walter J. Enright of the New York World staff and well known as an illustrator and cartoonist, and Miss Carroll McComas, actress, were married in New York this week. The bride’s mother, Alice Moore McComas, is the author of “Travel Sketches” and many short stories. Mr. Enright served through the war in the aviation service of the Second Army Corps with the rank of first lieutenant.
Enright and Carroll, an Albuquerque native, returned from Havana, Cuba, on March 13, 1922. Their home address was 18 Gramercy Park in Manhattan.

A passenger list said Enright, who was married, returned alone from Havana on January 3, 1925. His residence was 81 Irving Place, Manhattan.

American Newspaper Comics (2012) said Enright produced two series: Once Upon a Time ran from June 1, 1925 to August 5, 1926, and Here and Thereabouts which debuted May 12 and ended September 22, 1929.

On June 9, 1928, the New York Times reported Enright’s divorce.

After a visit to Bermuda, Enright arrived in New York on February 4, 1929. He was single and resided at 1 West 67th Street, New York City. Newspaper cartoonist Enright’s address was the same in the 1930 census.

Enright’s third marriage was to Brooklyn native, Rae. The couple returned from Bermuda on March 26, 1932. Their home was in New York City at 1 West 67th Street.

The 1940 census listed Enright and Rae in Delray Beach, Florida, at 201 South Swinton Avenue. In 1935 they resided in Brooklyn. Enright continued work as a newspaper cartoonist. At some point he adopted the pseudonym, W.J. Pat Enright which was used on his two books, Al Alligator and How He Learned to Play the Banjo (1947) and Sailor Jim’s Cave: A Mystery of Buried Treasure in Florida (1951).

Who Was Who said Enright was with the New York World from 1927 to 1930, and the New York American from 1930 to 1936. The New York Times said Enright was with the Miami Herald from 1933 to 1943, and the Palm Beach Post from 1943 to 1948.

The 1945 Florida state census recorded Enright and wife in Delray Beach on North Ocean Boulevard.

Enright passed away January 14, 1969, in Delray Beach, as reported by the New York Times, June 20.

—Alex Jay


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Wednesday, July 13, 2016


News of Yore 1960:The Ultimate 'Vertical Market' Cartoon

'Copter Cartoon Offered Free

(Editor & Publisher, December 10 1960)

A weekly comic panel, "'Copter Cartoons," is now offered newspapers free of charge by its originator, Owen Day, staff artist, Bell Helicopter Co.

The series first appeared in the company's news magazine, Bell News. Two years ago a selection of "'Copter Cartoons" was issued in booklet form. The May 17, 1959, edition of Parade Magazine featured four of the series in its cartoon section. A month ago, the Fort Worth (Tex.) Press began using the panel in its Sunday aviation page layout.

Noting the interest that has increasingly developed, the Bell company has underwritten the cost of producing the cartoon in order to make it available to newspapers at no cost, either in reproduction proof or mat form.

A sampling offer induced 15 newspapers to use the cartoon. The offer is now made nationally. The cartoons, although dealing with a helicopter as the main "character," have no bounds as to subjects. Use of the cartoons is limited to one paper in a given area.


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Tuesday, July 12, 2016


Ink-Slinger Profiles by Alex Jay: Hy Gage

Harry Frank “Hy” Gage was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on April 13, 1878, according to his World War II draft card and passenger lists from 1930 and 1934. Information posted at Lambiek Comiclopedia said, erroneously, that Gage was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Gage’s nickname, Hy, is the abbreviation for Harry and Henry.

In the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, Gage was the second of three children born to Frank, a bookkeeper, and Nancy, a Canadian. They resided in Hartford, Connecticut at 263 High Street. Gage’s father changed his job and moved the family.

Savannah, Nebraska was the home of the Gage family as recorded in the 1885 Nebraska state census. Gage’s father was a grain dealer.

Gage attended the University of Nebraska. His name was found in university catalogues from 1893 to 1895. Gage graduated in 1898. The Courier (Lincoln, Nebraska), October 1, 1898, noted Gage’s profession and plans.

Harry Gage, the cartoonist, is visiting Leonard H. Robbins at Princeton, N. J. He has been sailing on and fishing in the St. Lawrence. He will study drawing in Pratt institute, Brooklyn, this winter.
The 1900 census said Gage and Robbins, an editor, stayed in a boarding house in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania at 265 South 4th Street. 1901 and 1902 Philadelphia city directories listed Gage as an artist at 273 South 10th Street. He was a cartoonist, at 650 North 52nd Street, in the 1905 directory. The following two years Gage resided at 1411 Spruce Street. The artist’s address in 1908 was 420 South 15th Street.

American Newspaper Comics (2012) said Gage produced many comics from 1900 to 1930 for several newspapers. They are Breeches Boys (1900 to 1901); Mr. Billyuns (1902); Bub and Sis (1902); Bessie Busybody (1904); Strenuous White House Fun by the Roosevelt Kids (1904); Little Billy Penn and His Doggy Schuylkill (1906); Timothy Hay (1906); Mr. Grouch (1906 to 1911); Generous George (1906 to 1907); Mrs. Rummage the Bargain Fiend (1907 to 1917); What Dick Did, or How Mothers Worry (1907); Doctor Peach and Her Modern Methods (1908); Up in the Air with Hungry Halley (1910 to 1911); Mrs. De Style the Fashion Fiend (1911); Hungry Halley (1913 to 1914); Gay and Glum (1920 to 1922); and Miss Information (1924 to 1930).

Gage was a member of the Pen and Pencil Club of Philadelphia and was chosen as a delegate to the annual convention of the International League of Press Clubs at Atlantic City. Gage’s participation was mentioned in The Fourth Estate, June 3 and June 27, 1903.

Gage was a contributor to Bohemia: Official Publication of the International League of Press Clubs (1904). On and Off the Bread Wagon (1906) was illustrated by Gage. During 1910, Gage contributed articles and comics to Motor Boat.

Gage has not yet been found the 1910 census. In a 1912 directory, Gage lived at 253 South 13th Street. His residence, in 1916, was 1700 Pine Street.

The May 7, 1911 Sunday magazine in some newspapers, including the Courier-Journal (Louisville, Kentucky), Detroit Free Press and World-Herald (Omaha, Nebraska), carried Gage’s article, “Why Is a Comic Artist?” Gage wrote about himself and said:
…So I took a few weeks lessons from Cartoonist Briggs, and sent off a bunch of rot to the magazines. From that day to this my collection of rejection slips has increased by leaps and bounds.

The Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts and the Pratt Institute of Brooklyn both tried to make a second Rembrandt out of me, but somehow it didn’t take. Under their influence I did attempt a serious work of art. When the critics saw it they said I must have been under the influence of—but we’ll let that pass. They were only jealous.
The American Stationer, August 12, 1916, wrote about using movies as a marketing tool. Gage’s cartoon, “The Dream That Woke ‘Old Fossil’ Up”, was discussed.

According to Cartoons Magazine, December 1917, Gage was one of five artists who drew the billboard over the Liberty loan headquarters.

On September 12, 1918, Gage signed his World War I draft card. Gage was married to Florence and they lived at 1701 Pine Street in Philadelphia. Gage, a cartoonist at the Bulletin, was described as medium height and slender guild with blue eyes and light-colored hair.

Gage’s address did not change in the 1920 census and was a self-employed artist.

Gage’s Kartoono combined animation and live action. It was discussed in Animation Journal, Fall 1994.

Other animated films show a live-action character who plays the part of "an animator" interacting with animated characters; these narratives often seem to comment on the profession of animation itself. In Hy Gage’s Kartoono (ca. 1922), an animator creates a creature that seeks his creator's destruction. The starving artist, Kartoono, practices his lightning sketches on an easel, drawing a hungry dragon that eats his meat and drinks his beer. The artist talks to his creation and confesses: “I’m Busted, Starving, Got Cold Feets. Now to get Busy. No Work, No Eats!”—as if Gage was crying in his own woes about the poverty that his chosen profession has brought to him.
The rest of the text is in Animation: Art and Industry (2009).

In the second half of the 1940s, Gage contributed Butch and Foxy to comic books

The 1930 and 1940 censuses said Philadelphian Gage was a cartoonist who resided at 2103 Chestnut Street. When Gage signed his World War II draft card, on April 27, 1942, he worked for the Evening Bulletin and also freelanced. His address was the same in the 1950 Philadelphia telephone book.

Gage passed away in November 1971, in New Jersey, according to the Social Security Death Index which said his last residence was Haddonfield, New Jersey.

—Alex Jay


Hy Gage was a friend Of Charles Dryden, the famous baseball writer and humorist who worked for the Philadelphia North American at the turn of the century. He illustrated Dryden's serialized newspaper short stories, which were eventually turned into books.

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Monday, July 11, 2016


Obscurity of the Day: What Dick Did, Or How Mothers Worry

When I checked to see which of the very prolific Hy Gage's series I had covered on Stripper's Guide, I was flabbergasted to find out that not a single one has. So let's cure that huge gap in the blog's curriculum vitae today with What Dick Did, or How Mothers Worry.

But first, a few words about Mr. Gage. His name, I presume, is a pen-name unless his parents had a great sense of humor about their offspring. He burst on the newspaper cartooning scene at the turn of the century and in the next two decades had series accepted by practically every syndicate that existed. He was evidently a Philadelphia resident, as a huge amount of his work was done for them. In fact, he managed to have his work appear in every major Philly paper at one time or another. In addition to a prodigious output of comic strips, he also produced editorial cartoons, book illustrations, and humorous text pieces. In the 1920s his output fell off greatly; he produced only a few series plus editorial cartoons. However, I do find indications that Gage got interested in animation work in those years, so perhaps that's what kept him busy at his usual fever pitch. I find no evidence that he was producing newspaper work after the early 1930s, but there is an unsubstantiated claim on one cartooning website that he came back to newspaper cartooning for a couple series in the 1940s.

Gage could work in a few different styles -- a very clunky bigfoot style, almost amateurish, that he used for most of his comic strip work (as above), and a highly polished lovely style that he used for editorial and illustration work. Undoubtedly the slapdash style he used on comic strips was his method for cranking out a lot of material quickly.

Getting back to What Dick Did, it was produced for the Boston Herald Sunday comic section from March 17 to December 29 1907. It was a one-joke strip, but a pretty good one. Little Dick's mother is quite the 'helicopter parent', a century before that term was coined. Her dark fantasies of what might happen to him once he's out of her sight allow Gage to draw a fun fantasy sequence in every strip. It's unfortunate, though, that Gage signals the fantasy portion by laying on a dark tone above the art, making the strips look quite muddy. I think the caption "This Is What She Thought He Did" would have been quite enough to keep the reader from being confused.


Gage was doing spot art and eds at The Philadelphia Evening Bulletin at least into 1942. F.O. Alexander said that when he started there in December 1941, he met Gage and even worked along with him. It seems like they were probably breaking Alex in to replace Gage. If you spot any copies of the Bulletin from the 1930s to early 40's, you will see Gage's daily mini-editorials on the left side "Ear" in the masthead.
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